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Although the first 14C dating study (Singer and Wymer 1982) yielded finite ages down to the MSAI levels, more recent results suggest that the whole MSA sequence is older than 50,ooo years and therefore beyond the 14C dating range.

The amino-acid study of bones (Bada and Deems 1975) (which was calibrated on 14C dates from Nelson Bay Cave) suggested ages of 65,ooo-90,ooo years for the SAS member and about I ~o,oooyears for the LBS.

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Restudy of the deposits gives evidence that these specimens are from the lower part of the SAS sequence.

Singer and Wymer (1982) noted that one mandible (16424) represents an individ- ual as gracile as a modern San female, whereas other specimens are notably robust.

8 I 90 Archaeological excavations at the main site at Klasies River Mouth Cave (34'06' S, 24'24' E), on the Tsitsi- kama coast of the Cape Province, South Africa, began in 1967-68, and this first investigation produced abun- dant Middle Stone Age archaeological materials and important specimens of anatomically modern Homo sapiens (see Singer and Wymer 1982). Singer and Wymer (1982) used changes evident in the technology and typology of the artefacts to define a series of time-ordered culture-stratigraphic units within the MSA.

DEACON Subdepartment of Quaternary Research, Cambridge University, Free School Lane, Cam bridge CB2 3RS, U. (Griin and Shack1eton)l Department of Archaeology, University of Stellenbosch, 7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa (Deacon).

The external gamma dose rate was mea- sured at the original sites with a calibrated portable gamma-ray spectrometer.

The present-day uranium concentration of the enamel ( The ESR results reflect the stratigraphic positions of the samples.

Initial results of a more extensive study (Deacon, Talma, and Vogel 1988) have confirmed the correlation of the LBS member with stage ge and indicated that the Upper member may correlate with the transition from stage ga to stage 4.

It must be emphasized, however, that strati- graphic (i.e., relative) correlations based on lithology, fauna, cultural sequences, etc., with the marine oxygen- isotope record may be hazardous (see Parkington 1990 and van Andel 1989). Thestratigraphy and sedimentology of the main site sequence, Klasies River, South Africa.

All the speci- mens are within the range of anatomical variation found in modern human populations, but individual finds are fragmentary, and it has been suggested that they were accumulated through the practice of cannibalism (White 1987).

The I967-68 excavation produced no diagnostic human remains from the LBS member; more recent ex- cavations have yielded the maxillary fragments of two individuals from the same horizon, the oldest specimens at the site.

The principles of the method have been de- scribed by Griin (1989a, b), and such analyses have al- ready been performed for materials from Bilzingsleben, Qafzeh, La Micoque, Skhiil, Kebara, and Border Cave (Schwarcz et al. Sample 543, a bovid upper molar, came from layer 17, at the base of the SAS unit.

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